Implementing Real-Time Database Activity Monitoring
at the University of Bristol

Key Business Drivers and Deployment Experience
Like many educational institutions, the University of Bristol has both an extremely open environment and a highly dynamic user base, creating unique challenges for IT security. With more than 20,000 students attending each year, plus an additional 5,000 staff faculty positions, the annual turnover of new and graduating students, along with guest faculty, warrants significant attention when it comes to securing sensitive data.

The University of Bristol implemented Sentrigo Hedgehog Enterprise (now McAfee® Database Activity Monitoring, a breach prevention suite and virtual patching solution) in 2009, providing a greater degree of protection for personally identifiable information of its applicants, students, faculty, staff, and alumni, as well as for the university’s financial, academic, and research data.

The Need for Greater Security
With the arrival of a new information security officer in 2008, the University of Bristol tasked each of its academic computing teams with evaluating their current security postures and identifying vulnerabilities and potential solutions in light of greater threats from external hackers or malicious insiders. While the university was not aware of any specific data leaks in the past, the frequent announcements of data breaches at other universities across the globe suggested that a more secure environment was nonetheless advisable.

The University of Bristol uses a range of different applications and databases, storing and processing data in support of virtually all operations at the school—from human resources and finance to student grades and research projects. Many of these systems contain sensitive data, and, after conducting a detailed analysis, the team identified several common areas for improvement:

  • Extending database audit to all systems, allowing the university to trace every access to be certain data has not been compromised.
  • Log analysis was being done regularly; however, for the most critical data more immediate alerting or active intrusion prevention could be beneficial.
  • More visibility into the activities of privileged users (including system administrators, developers, and database administrators), and separation of duties, would provide greater oversight.
  • While database patches issued by the vendors were applied to most systems soon after release, for a small number of applications, the inability to schedule downtime or application compatibility issues, delayed some updates.


Getting Started
As part of the database team’s due diligence, Cameron Capewell, one of just three database administrators who support more than 70 databases, attended a course on database security offered by the SANS Institute. While the processes in place at Bristol were generally in line with best practices at the time, it was clear that the sophistication of attacks within the hacking community was increasing rapidly, and, Cameron remembers, “We knew there was a lot more we could do.”

“We knew we needed to do more to secure our databases. We chose Hedgehog [McAfee Database Activity Monitoring] as we could install it quickly and easily, and, unlike network-based solutions, it protects us against all types of attacks.”

Cameron Capewell
Database Administrator, University of Bristol

The first step was to conduct a comprehensive vulnerability assessment to build a complete picture of what databases were in place, identify those containing sensitive data, as well as find out which applications were utilizing that data, and determine the general security status of each system (patch level, privileged accounts, and other details). After a thorough review of a range of different solutions, the team concluded that getting better information about database activity and deploying intrusion detection and prevention techniques could significantly reduce the risk of a breach.

The question was then: what technologies to use? And from which vendors? To best answer these questions, a project board was formed with representation from the database team, the database “customers” in various applications groups, and the end-user community itself. The goal was to implement much stronger controls without creating obstacles to easy data access for authorized use.

Choosing the Best Solution
After reviewing products from several differentvendors, the team selected McAfee Database Activity Monitoring with virtual patching (formerly Sentrigo Hedgehog Enterprise) to protect unpatchedsystems. With the relatively small team, it was crucial that, whichever solution they picked, it would be easy to deploy. As with almost every educational institution today, there were significant constraints on budget as well; McAfee software-only solution could be run on existing systems, significantly reducing costs.

The most influential factor in selecting a product was ultimately whether it would best meet the security goals of the University. It was in this area that McAfee set itself apart. The unique architecture, based on autonomous sensors on each server, provided protection from and immediate reaction to all threats. As Cameron stated, “We looked at other database activity monitoring solutions, and we chose McAfee Database Activity Monitoring based on the way it monitors memory, so we can prevent breaches before they occur. And unlike network-based solutions, McAfee sees all types of attacks, even from privileged users.”

Furthermore, Cameron added, “We try to always apply Oracle CPUs [Critical Patch Updates] and Microsoft patches as soon as possible, but it’s not always easy to negotiate the downtime for that. ‘Virtual patching’ allows us to protect against vulnerabilities addressed in the Oracle CPUs within a more realistic timeframe. So, now it buys us some time, because with the virtual patches we know that we are safe until a point when we can actually apply the update.”

Up and Running Quickly
One notable positive was how quickly Cameron and the other database administrators were able to come up to speed on the McAfee solution, without extensive training. According to Cameron, “We read the manual, played with it for a while on some test servers, watched an online demo, and then we jumped right in.”

The total time span from the point the university first began discussing security improvements until the first copies of McAfee Database Activity Monitoring were installed, was about nine months. From there things progressed rapidly, in large part due to McAfee Database Activity Monitoring’s ease of implementation. Cameron recalls: “McAfee Database Activity Monitoring was just incredibly easy to deploy. I think it was about a half-hour to install the server—I’ve forgotten because it was such an insignificant amount of time. And then each sensor took about five minutes to install, so that’s been brilliant as well, really.”

Results, Benefits, and Future Plans
The team at University of Bristol could not be happier with the initial results of its real-time database activity monitoring and virtual patching implementation. They not only have full visibility into all suspicious database access via immediate alerts, but on the most sensitive data they terminate unauthorized access in real time, potentially preventing a costly breach before it can occur.

When asked if there were any surprises, Cameron’s response is quite telling: “Prepare yourselves to be scared by what you see in the alerts. While many of the SQL injection alerts are not necessarily malicious activity—they are often just the result of poor coding practice—they each represent a potential vulnerability that could have easily been exploited before installing the McAfee solution.” Mark Ellingsen, web and database team manager, added, “One of the best things to come out of this project has been the ability to reach out to developers and close these gaps. They were just as shocked as anyone.”

In addition to database activity monitoring, for systems where an application either cannot be certified to work on a patch from the database vendor or downtime cannot be scheduled for an extended period, database instances are now protected using virtual patches. Any attempts to exploit the unpatched vulnerability will immediately trigger either an alert or a termination, depending on the perceived severity of the threat.

Furthermore, as this was the first major security project of this scale across the university, many of the processes the team had put in place are now being used for other projects as well. The learning and leadership is having an influence beyond the database group, raising the overall awareness of security best practices throughout the university.

The first phase focused on those databases and applications with the most sensitive information, and therefore addressed data assets that would be most damaging if they were breached. The team is now actively working to roll out protection for all databases across the University of Bristol. In parallel, the team continues to build out more granular custom rules to provide the highest level of protection for critical data: for example, limiting access to certain tables to only a small number of specified users coming from specific hosts. In the domain of information security it seems like one is never quite done, but with the combination of McAfee Database Activity Monitoring and the team at the University of Bristol, data protection is stronger than ever.

University of Bristol (UK)


Customer profile

One of the top 10 universities in the United Kingdom




Higher education



IT environment

The university’s network supports more than 20,000 students, plus more than 5,000 faculty and administrative staff on the network, including more than 30 production databases with more than 40 for training and development




Protect sensitive data from privileged insiders as well as external threats



McAfee solution

  • McAfee Database Activity Monitoring
  • McAfee Virtual Patching for Databases




  • Implemented solution campus-wide with minimal IT resources
  • Immediate visibility into all suspicious activity across Oracle and Microsoft SQL server databases
  • Identified and remediated vulnerabilities in internally developed applications by working closely with developers


Databases and Sensitive Information


  • More than 30 production databases, plus an additional 40 or more for training and development
  • Multiple versions of both Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server
  • Many databases are subject to strict access control and/or contain private data:
    – Names, identification numbers
    – Financial information: aid applications, scholarships, grants
    – Grades, transcripts, test results
    – Research data and other intellectual property